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The Patriots - The Heros Behind Our Freedom


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#2207478
Pokkiri Kuttu

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Great Indian Patriots

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The Heros Behind Our Freedom




Freedom did not come easy to India. It took the enormous courage, perseverance and endurance of some great personalities of India who were born to be true patriots.

Read about these great Indian patriots who fought tirelessly for the independence of our nation and cared little for their own lives and comforts to achieve their goal.







നമ്മുടെ ധീര ദേശാഭിമാനികള്‍


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“ഇന്ന് പാതിരാ മണി മുഴങ്ങുമ്പോള്‍ ഇന്ത്യ ഉണര്‍ന്നെഴുന്നേല്‍ക്കും. ഒരു പുതു ജീവിതത്തിലേക്കും സ്വാതന്ത്യത്തിലേക്കും. ആ നിമിഷം ഇതാ സമാഗതമാവുകയാണ്. ചരിത്രത്തില്‍ അത്യപൂര്‍വ്വമായി മാത്രം വരുന്ന നിമിഷം. പഴമയില്‍ നിന്ന് നാം പുതുമയിലേക്ക് കാലെടുത്ത് വെച്ചിരിക്കുന്നു. ദീര്‍ഘകാലം അടിച്ചമര്‍ത്തപ്പെട്ട് കിടന്ന ഒരു ജനതയുടെ ആത്മാവിന് ശബ്ദം ലഭിക്കുകയാണ്. ഇന്ത്യയെയും ഈ നാട്ടിലെ ജനങ്ങളെയും മനുഷ്യരാശിയെയും സേവിക്കാന്‍ സ്വയം അര്‍പ്പിക്കുമെന്ന് നാം പ്രതിജ്ഞ ചെയ്യേണ്ട നിമിഷമാണിത്.”

(സ്വാതന്ത്ര്യലബ്ധിയുടെ അര്‍ദ്ധരാത്രിയില്‍ ജവഹര്‍ലാല്‍ നെഹ്റു നടത്തിയ പ്രസംഗത്തില്‍ നിന്ന്)

നമ്മുടെ രാജ്യത്തെ വിദേശ ആക്രമണങ്ങളില്‍ നിന്നും രക്ഷിക്കാന്‍ വേണ്ടി സ്വന്തം ജീവന്‍ ബലികഴിപ്പിച്ചു പോരാടിയ ധീര ദേശാഭിമാനികളുടെ ഓര്‍മ്മകള്‍ക്ക് മുന്നില്‍ ഒരു നിമിഷം തല കുനിച്ചു കൊണ്ട് വല്ലപ്പോഴും മാത്രമല്ല! ഇനി എല്ലായിപ്പോഴും നമ്മുക്ക് ഓര്‍ക്കാം! :rose:


നാമെങ്ങിനെയാണ് നാമായതെന്ന നമുക്കുള്ള ഒരു ചെറിയ ഓര്‍മ്മപ്പെടുത്തല്‍ കൂടി ആണ് ഈ ടോപ്പിക്ക്. നമ്മള്‍ അധികം അറിയാത്ത പോരാട്ടത്തിന്റെയും കണ്ണീരിന്റെയും വേദനയുണ്ടതിനു.






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ഇന്ത്യ എന്റെ രാജ്യമാണ്. എല്ലാ ഇന്ത്യക്കാരും എന്റെ സ്വന്തക്കാരാണ്. ഞാന്‍ എന്റെ രാജ്യത്തെക്കുറിച്ചഭിമാനിക്കുമ്പേള്‍ത്തന്നെ ലോകജനതയെ സ്നേഹിക്കുവാനും കൊതിക്കുന്നു. :india:


Jai Hind: Proud to be an Indian :india:


Topic Index
Aravinda Ackroyd Ghosh
Aravinda Ackroyd Ghosh
A.V. Kuttimalu Amma
Aali Musliyar
Abul Kalam Ghulam Muhiyuddin
Accamma Cherian
Athhan Gurukkal
Aruna Asif Ali
Ashafakhulla khan
Amsi Narayana Pilla
A.K.G.
Begum Hazrat Mahal
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Bhagath Sigh
Barindra Kumar Ghosh
Bagha Jatin
Benoy Krishna Basu
Bipin Chandra Pal
Badal Gupta
Chittaranjan Das
Captain Lakshmi
Dinesh Chandra Gupta
Dr champakaraman pillai
Dadabhai Naoroji
E. Moidu Moulavi
E. Ikkanda Warrier
Edachena Kunkan
Gopal Krishna Gokhale
Gopinathu Bardolo
Jhanci Rani
Jivatram Kripalani
Kartar Singh Sarbha
Khudiram Bose
Kuzhur Neelakantan Namboothiripad
K. Kelappan
Kaumudi Teacher
Lala Lajpat Rai
Madan Lal Dhingra
Mahadev Desai
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
Mangal Pandey
Matangini Hazra
Narhari Parikh
Pazhassi Raja
P. Sisupalan
Pritilata Waddedar
Rabindranath Tagore
Rani Abbakka
Sukhdev Thapar
S. Srinivasa Iyengar
Shivaram Hari Rajguru
Surya Sen
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

Udham Sigh

Veluthambi Dalava
Veerapandiya Kattabomman
Vinayak Damodar Savarkar
Vinoba Bhave
Vithalbhai Patel
Variyan Kunnathu Kunjahammed Haji
Veer Kunwar Singh
 

 
 
Courtesy : Archuz :hugkiss:
NB >> If any mods are editing to update the index please go on in the alphabetical order only..
or else leave it, I will update
Thanks.. [Nichu]


Edited by Nishaagandhi, 06 May 2013 - 12:48 PM.
To update & and make in alphabetical order

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Vinayak Damodar Savarkar

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Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, sometimes called Veer Savarkar or Vir Savarkar was an Indian freedom fighter and a Hindu nationalist leader. Vinayak Savarkar was a great orator, prolific writer, historian, poet, philosopher and social worker who devoted his entire life to the cause of the Indian Independence movement. He is regarded by some as one of the greatest revolutionaries in the Indian freedom struggle, while others consider him a communalist and Machiavellian manipulator.

He was also one of the most controversial figures of the independence movement. Being a descendant of a line of Sanskrit scholars, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar took great interest in History, Politics, Literature and Indian culture. His book, 'First war of Indian Independence Movement': 1857, served as an inspiration for many freedom fighters. Born in the village of Bhagur near Nasik, he was one among four children born to Damodarpant Savarkar and Radhabai. His initial education was at the Shivaji School, Nasik. He lost his mother at the age of nine. Brought up by his father, he was influenced by the freedom struggle in British India and got drawn towards it. He lost his father during the plague that struck India in 1899.

In March 1901, he married Yamunabai. Post marriage, in 1902, he joined Fergusson College in Pune to study further. In June 1906, he received a scholarship and left for London to study law. As a student, Savarkar was involved in the Swadeshi movement. He later joined Bal Gangadhar Tilak's Swaraj Party. When in London, he founded the Free India Society. The Society celebrated important dates on the Indian calendar including festivals, freedom movement landmarks, and was dedicated to furthering discussion about Indian freedom which came to be highly unacceptable to the British. He is reported to have quoted, "We must stop complaining about this British officer or that officer, this law or that law.

There would be no end to that. Our movement must not be limited to being against any particular law, but it must be for acquiring the authority to make the laws itself. In other words, we want Absolute Political Independence." In 1908, when he wrote "The Indian War of Independence 1857", the British government immediately enforced a ban on the publication in both Britain and India. Later, it was published by Madame Bhikaiji Cama in Holland, and was smuggled into India to reach revolutionaries working across the country against British rule.

In 1909, Madanlal Dhingra, a keen follower of Savarkar shot Sir Wyllie after a failed assassination attempt on the then Viceroy, Lord Curzon. In the political crisis that ensued, Savarkar stood out with a decision not to condemn the act. When the then British Collector of Nasik, A.M.T. Jackson was shot by a youth, Savarkar finally fell under the net of the British authorities. He was implicated in the murder citing his connections with India House. A warrant was issued on 13th March, 1910, following which he was arrested in Paris. He hatched a plan to escape at Marseilles which failed. He was captured and brought to Bombay (Mumbai) on the S.S. Morea, and imprisoned at the Yervada Prison. He was tried, and at the age of 27 years, sentenced to 50 years imprisonment at the infamous Cellular Jail in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. On 4th July, 1911, he was transported to the Andamans. He appealed for clemency in 1911, and again in 1913, during Sir Reginald Craddock's visit. In 1920, many prominent freedom fighters including Vithalbhai Patel, Mahatma Gandhi and Bal Gangadhar Tilak demanded the release of Savarkar and his brother in the Central Legislative Assembly.

On May 2, 1921, Savarkar was moved to Ratnagiri jail, and from there to the Yeravada jail. It was in Ratnagiri jail that Savarkar wrote the book 'Hindutva'. In January 6, 1924 he was released under conditions of stringent restrictions imposed on his travel and activities. Savarkar, though an atheist himself, reluctantly accepted the presidency of the Hindu Mahasabha, and was its president for seven consecutive years. During this time, he contributed significantly to its evolution as a separate political party. The Hindu Mahasabha, under Savarkar's presidency, did not support the Quit India movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi in August 1942. The Communist Party of India and the Muslim League were the other political parties which did not support the Quit India Movement. His view of post-independence India envisioned a militarily strong, cohesive and self-sufficient nation.

His Writings

His literary works in Marathi include "Kamala", "Mazi Janmathep" (My Life Sentence), and most famously "1857 - The First war of Independence". Another noted book was "Kala Pani" (similar to Life Sentence, but on the island prison on the Andamans), which reflected the treatment of Indian freedom fighters by the British. He wrote several books when in prison. Among those that he wrote when in Ratnagiri jail, was the profoundly influential book 'Hindutva', which deals with the Hindu nationalistic approach to the idea of the Indian nation and Hinduism. Other books written by him include "Hindu Padpadashahi" and "My Transportation for Life". At the same time, religious divisions in India were beginning to fissure. He described what he saw as the atrocities of British and Muslims on Hindu residents in Kerala, in the book, "Mopalyanche Band" (Muslims' Strike) and also "Gandhi Gondhal" (Gandhi's Nonsense), a political critique of Gandhi's politics. Savarkar, by now, had become a committed and persuasive critic of the Gandhian vision of India's future. He is also the author of poems like "Sagara pran talmalala", and "Jayostute" (written in praise of freedom), claimed to be one of the most moving, inspiring and patriotic works in Marathi literature by his followers and some critics.

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Vinoba Bhave
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Vinoba Bhave, born Vinayak Narahari Bhave and often called Acharya (In Sanskrit and Hindi means teacher), is considered as a National Teacher of India and the spiritual successor of Mahatma Gandhi. He was born in Gagode, Maharashtra on September 11, 1895 into a pious family of the Chitpavan Brahmin clan. He was highly inspired after reading the Bhagavad Gita, one of the holiest Hindu scriptures at a very young age. He was associated with Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian independence movement. In 1932 he was sent to jail by the British colonial government because of his fight against British rule. There he gave a series of talks on the Gita, in his native language Marathi, to his fellow prisoners. These highly inspiring talks were later published as the book "Talks on the Gita", and it has been translated to many languages both in India and elsewhere.

Vinoba felt that the source of these talks was something above and he believed that its influence will endure even if his other works were forgotten. In 1940 he was chosen by Gandhi to be the first Individual Satyagrahi (an Individual standing up for Truth instead of a collective action) against the British rule. Bhave also participated in the Quit India Movement.

Vinoba's religious outlook was very broad and it synthesized the truths of many religions. This can be seen in one of his hymns "Om Tat" which contains symbols of many religions. He was also a scholar of many languages. Vinoba observed the life of the average Indian living in a village and tried to find solutions for the problems he faced with a firm spiritual foundation. This formed the core of his Sarvodaya (Awakening of all potentials) movement. Another example of this is the Bhoodhan (land gift) movement.

He walked all across India asking people with land to consider him as one of their sons and so give him a portion of their land which he then distributed to landless poor. Nonviolence and compassion being a hallmark of his philosophy, he also campaigned against the slaughtering of cows. Vinoba spent the later part of his life at his ashram in Paunar, Maharashtra. He controversially backed the Indian Emergency imposed by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, calling it Anushasana Parva (Time for Discipline).

He died on November 15, 1982 after refusing food and medicine few days earlier. Some Indians have identified this as sallekhana. He was awarded the Bharat Ratna posthumously in 1983.

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Vithalbhai Patel
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Vithalbhai Patel was an Indian legislator and political leader, and co-founder of the Swaraj Party. Born in Nadiad, in the Indian state of Gujarat, Vithalbhai Jhaverbhai Patel was the third of five Patel brothers, four years elder to Vallabhbhai Patel, raised in the village of Karamsad. Vithalbhai educated himself in Nadiad and in Bombay, and worked as a pleader (a junior lawyer) in the courts of Godhra and Borsad.

At a very young age, he was married to a girl from another village, Diwaliba. His younger brother Vallabhbhai Patel had similarly studied by himself and worked as a pleader. Studying in England was a dream to both men, although they did not know this. Vallabhbhai had saved enough money and ordered his passport and travel tickets, when the postman delivered them to Vithalbhai, on account that it was addressed to a Mr. V.J. Patel, Pleader.

Vithalbhai insisted on traveling on those documents actually meant for Vallabhbhai, pointing out that it would be socially criticized that an older brother followed the lead of the younger. Respecting his brother despite the obvious cruelty of fate on his own hard work, Vallabhbhai allowed him to proceed to England, and even paid for his stay. Vithalbhai entered the Middle Temple Inn in London, and completed the 36-month course in 30, emerging at the top of his class.

Returning to Gujarat in 1913, Vithalbhai became an important barrister in the courts of Bombay and Ahmedabad. However, his wife died in 1915, and he remained a widower. Patel entered politics before his more renowned brother, winning a seat on the Bombay Legislative Council, a body with no real functions. Although failing to achieve anything concrete in terms of the fight for national independence, self-government or public welfare, Patel grew popular and respected by his oratorical and witty mastery and belittling of the Raj's officials, winning many a battle of wit, which bore little overall significance. He rose to the presidency of the Imperial Legislative Council, a collage of pro-British elected and appointed Indians and Englishmen designated to rubber-stamp the Viceroy's decisions.

Although never truly accepting the philosophy and leadership of Mohandas Gandhi, Patel joined the Congress and the struggle for freedom. He had no regional base of support, yet he was an influential leader who expanded the struggle through fiery speeches and articles published. When Gandhi aborted the struggle in 1922 following the Chauri Chaura Incident, Patel left the Congress to form the Swaraj Party with Chittaranjan Das and Motilal Nehru, which would seek to foil the Raj by sabotaging the government after gaining entry in the councils.

The party only succeeded in dividing the Congress and finally itself, but Patel and others were important voices who rebelled against the leadership of Gandhi when the nation anguished over the abortion of the Non-Cooperation Movement. Vithalbhai Patel rejoined the Congress in 1930 upon the declaration of Purna Swaraj (Complete Independence), yet later gave it up after the end of the Salt Satyagraha. He became a fierce critic of Gandhi and a strong ally of Subhas Chandra Bose. Bose and Patel travelled across Europe, gathering funds and political support - among others, they met Eamon DeValera, President of Ireland. However, Patel fell seriously ill, and died in Geneva, Switzerland.
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Gopal Krishna Gokhale

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Gopal Krishna Gokhale was born on May 9, 1866, in Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, and he became one of the most learned men in India, a leader of social and political reformists and one of the earliest, founding leaders of the Indian Independence Movement. Gokhale was a senior leader of the Indian National Congress and the Servants of India Society.

The latter was committed to only social reform, but the Congress Party in Gokhale's time was the main vehicle for Indian political representation. Gokhale was a great, early Indian champion for public education. Being one of the first generations of Indians to receive college education, Gokhale was respected widely in the nascent Indian intellecutal community and acoss India, whose people looked up to him as the least elitist of educated Indians. Coming from a background of poverty, Gokhale was a real man of the people, a hero to young Indians discovering the new age and the prospects of the coming 20th century; he worked amongst common Indians to encourage education, sanitation and public development.

He actively spoke against ignorance, casteism and untouchability in Indian society. Gokhale was also reputed for working for trust and friendship between Hindu and Muslim communities. It should be remembered that Gokhale was a pioneer in this work, never done before in Indian history by Indians. Along with distinguished colleagues like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Dadabhai Naoroji, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai and Annie Besant, Gokhale fought for decades to obtain greater political representation and power over public affairs for common Indians.

He was moderate in his views and attitudes, and sought to petition the British authorities, cultivate a process of dialogue and discussion which would yield greater British respect for Indian rights. In 1906, he and Tilak were the respective leaders of the moderates and extremists (now known by the more politically correct term,'aggressive nationalists') in the Congress. Tilak advocated civil agitation and direct revolution to overthrow the British Empire, and the Congress Party split into two wings. The two sides would patch up in 1916.

Gokhale did not support explicit Indian independence, for such an idea was not even understood or expressed until after the World War I.
Gopal Krishna Gokhale's biggest contribution to India was as a teacher, nurturer of a whole new generation of leaders conscious to their responsibilities to a wider nation. Gokhale was famously a mentor to a young barrister who had been blooded in the work of revolution in South Africa a few years earlier. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi received great warmth and hospitality from Gokhale, including personal guidance, knowledge and understanding of India, the issues of common Indians and Indian politics.

By 1920, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi would become known as Mahatma Gandhi, and ad the leader of nationalist Indians and the largest non-violent revolution in the history of the world. However, Gokhale himself died in 1915. In his autobiography, Gandhi calls Gokhale his mentor and guide, while Mohammed Ali Jinnah, the future founder of Pakistan, in 1912 wanted to become the "Muslim Gokhale," "Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity."
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Mahadev Desai

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Mahadev Desai was an Indian freedom fighter, a nationalist writer and most famously known for being the personal secretary of Mahatma Gandhi. Mahadev Desai was born on January 1st, 1892 at Saras, a village in Olpad Taluka of Surat district of the Indian state of Gujarat, where his father Haribhai Desai was a school teacher. The family originally hailed from Dihen in the same district. He lost his mother Jamnaben when he was only seven years old. Gujarat was also the birthplace and home of Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the most prominent leaders in the Indian Independence Movement. Desai was a young lawyer in Ahmedabad when he decided to join Gandhi along with Narhari Parikh, Mohanlal Pandya and Ravi Shankar Vyas, and became his most devoted secretary for over 25 years, from 1917 to 1942. The four were the earliest supporters of Gandhi. Mahadev Desai was arrested with Gandhi during all the nationalist revolts. The chief period of interest is the time Gandhi was incarcerated in the Yeravda Jail near Pune, Maharashtra from 1931 to 1934. Desai wrote most of his important works on Gandhi during this period. When arrested during the Quit India movement and sent to the Aga Khan Palace for imprisonment, he died on August 15th, 1942. Gandhi was devastated by Desai's death at a young age. Both Gandhi and his wife Kasturba Gandhi had seen him as their son, and his death was mourned by Gandhi's supporters across the country. He wrote several books on the non-violent struggles led by Gandhi in India, and a diary called 'Day to Day with Gandhi' in 9 volumes. His son Narayan Desai is also a non-violent activist.

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His Writings

A Righteous Struggle

With Gandhi in Ceylon, 1928.

The Story of Bardoli, 1929

Swadeshi-True and False, 1929.

Unworthy of Wardha, 1929.

Eclipse of Faith, 1929.

The Nation's Voice, 1932.

The Epic of Travanancore, 1937.

Gandhi Seva Sangh, 1940.

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, 1940.

Kheti ni Jamin, Gujarati, 1942.

The Geeta according to Gandhi, 1942.

Day to Day with Gandhi, post-mortem.

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Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was first Vice President of India and second President of India. He was also a philosopher and introduced the thinking of western idealist philosophers into Indian thought. He was a famous teacher and his birthday is celebrated as Teacher's Day in India.

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was born on September 5, 1888 at Tirutani, Madras in a poor Brahmin family. As his father was poor Radhakrishnan supported most of his education through scholarships. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan had his early education at Gowdie School, Tiruvallur and then went to the Lutheran Mission School in Tirupati for his high school. He joined the Voorhee's College in Vellore and later switched to the Madras Christian College. He chose Philosophy as his major subject and did his B.A. and M.A. in it.

After completing his M.A., Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, accepted an Assistant Lectureship at the Madras Presidency College in 1909. In college, he mastered the classics of Hindu philosophy, namely the Upanishads, Bhagvad Gita, Brahmasutra, and commentaries of Sankara, Ramunuja and Madhava. He also acquainted himself with Buddhist and Jain philosophy and philosophies of Western thinkers such as Plato, Plotinus, Kant, Bradley, and Bergson.

In 1918, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was selected as Professor of Philosophy by the University of Mysore. In 1921, Radhakrishnan was nominated as Professor of Philosophy at the Calcutta University, 1921. In 1923, Dr. Radhakrishnan's book "Indian Philosophy" was published. The book was hailed as a "philosophical classic and a literary masterpiece."

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was called to Oxford University, to deliver lectures on Hindu philosophy. He used his lectures as a platform to further India's cause for freedom. He also argued that Western philosophers, despite all claims to objectivity, were biased by theological influences from their wider culture. He showed that Indian philosophy, once translated into standard academic jargon, is worthy of being called philosophy by Western standards. He thus placed Indian Philosophy on world map.

In 1931, Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was elected Vice Chancellor of the Andhra University. In 1939, Radhakrishnan became the Vice Chancellor of the Benaras Hindu University. In 1946, he was appointed as Ambassador to UNESCO. After Independence Dr. Radhakrishnan was requested to Chair the University Education Commission in 1948. The Radhakrishnan Committee's suggestions helped mould the education system for India's needs.

In 1949, Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was appointed ambassador to the Soviet Union. He helped laid the foundation for a strong relationship with Soviet Union. Radhakrishnan was elected first Vice-President of India in 1952. He was honored with the Bharat Ratna in 1954. After serving two terms as Vice-President, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was elected President of India in 1962. During his tenure as President India fought wars with China and Pakistan. As President he helped see India through those trying years safely. He retired as President in 1967 and settled in Madras.

Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan died on April 17, 1975.

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Jivatram Kripalani

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Jivatram Kripalani, also referred to with the prefix Acharya (Teacher), was an Indian freedom fighter, who became a nationwide leader of the Janata Party revolt against the Indian Emergency. Jivatram (also spelled Jiwatram) Bhagwandas Kripalani was born in current-day Gujarat in 1888. He was of Sindhi and Gujarati roots. He received college education, and was a learned and scholarly young man when he became a member of the Indian National Congress. He was a school teacher when he soon became a disciple of rising nationalist leader Mahatma Gandhi, and adopted his teachings and leadership.

Kripalani was involved in the Non-Cooperation Movement of the early 1920s, and worked in Gandhi's ashrams in Gujarat and Maharashtra on tasks of social reform and education, and later left for Bihar and Uttar Pradesh in northern India to teach and organize new ashrams. He also courted arrest on numerous occasions in the national struggles and smaller occasions of organizing protests and publishing what the British considered seditious materials. With the support of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and Gandhi, Kripalani joined the All India Congress Committee and became its General Secretary in 1928-29, an important position. He would hold the position for many years.

He was popular with nationalists and the common people in northern as well as western India. Kripalani drew close to Patel, and was prominently involved over a decade in top Congress party affairs, and in the organization of the Salt Satyagraha and the Quit India Movement. Kripalani served in the interim Government of India (1946-1947) was also the earliest supporters of Patel and Nehru over the Partition of India, and served in the Constituent Assembly of India. In 1946, when the Congress Working Committee met to elect its new President, who would also become the head of the first all-Indian government, the contest was between Sardar Patel, the choice of 15 provincial Congress organizations, and Jivatram Kripalani, the choice of one. But Jawaharlal Nehru was recommended by the Working Committee at the last moment. Before Gandhi pressured Patel to drop his candidacy in favor of Nehru, Kripalani withdrew his name and backed Nehru. After Patel's death in 1950 and Nehru's increasing popularity in the 1950s, Kripalani left the Congress. Kripalani remained a critic of Prime Minister Nehru's policies and administration, while working for social causes for the common people of India. He was now respectfully addressed as Acharya Jivatram Kripalani by his admirers and supporters, but did not attempt to resuscitate his political career. But in 1974, Kripalani joined Jaya Prakash Narayan in organizing major student and union strikes and protests nationwide against the rule of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, Nehru's daughter.

Kripalani and Narayan felt that Gandhi's rule had become dictatorial and anti-democratic, and her conviction on charges of using government machinery for her election campaign galvanized her political opposition and public disenchantment against her policies. Both Kripalani and Narayan were arrested during the Indian Emergency (1975-1977), when Gandhi suspended political activities and elections under the Emergency clause in the Constitution of India. When Gandhi released all political prisoners and called fresh elections in 1977, Kripalani helped Narayan organize the coalition of political parties opposed to Gandhi's Congress Party, called the Janata (People's) Party. Janata Party swept the elections and Morarji Desai became India's new Prime Minister, but Kripalani receded to the background due to ill health and old age. He died on March 19, 1982, at the age of 94.

His wife Sucheta Kripalani was also an Indian freedom fighter, a renowned singer and the first lady Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh.
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Narhari Parikh

Narhari Parikh was an Indian freedom fighter and social reformer, who was a close associate of Mahatma Gandhi and the chief architect of the Indian Independence Movement in Gujarat. Hailing from the western Indian state of Gujarat, Parikh was an educated lawyer in Ahmedabad, when in 1916 he gave up his practice to work with Mahatma Gandhi, the future leader of the Indian Independence Movement, just like fellow Gujarati lawyers Mohanlal Pandya, Ravi Shankar Vyas and Mahadev Desai to work on a collection of missions for social reform in Gujarat, such as fighting untouchability, alcoholism, illiteracy and working to expanding freedom for women, Indian-run schools, sanitation and health care.

Understanding Gandhi's point that the real India was in the 900,000 villages of the land, Parikh focused especially on hundreds of villages in Gujarat, going from village to village despite all the pains and obstacles of weather, terrain and lack of resources. When the first revolts led by Gandhi, of the Indian Independence Movement broke in Gujarat, Parikh was the chief lieutenant of Gandhi and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.

He formed a close bond of friendship and trust with the latter, both working under a common teacher, Gandhi. Patel and Parikh scaled all of Gujarat to muster support for the tax and land revolt in Kheda (1918-19), Borsad (1924) and Bardoli (1928), the latter being the most famous Indian revolt, catapaulted Vallabhbhai Patel to the national stage. When the Indian National Congress inaugurated the Salt Satyagraha of 1930-34, Parikh was the chief organizer in Gujarat. He also was one of the first supporters of and the key Gujarati organizer of the Quit India Movement, but all through his life remained working only in Gujarat and not on the national stage. He was tirelessly supportive of Gandhi, adhering to his leadership even when the Congress Party as such chose a different path.

All through his years of association with Gandhi and the freedom struggle, Parikh was arrested by British authorities and spent many years in prison. Parikh worked tirelessly with Gujarati women's and student's associations, labor and farmer groups to alleviate people from social and economic ills, as well as fighting political and social oppression. After India's independence and despite Gandhi's death in 1948, he remained active with Gandhi's ashrams in Gujarat, and in 1949 penned a biography of his close friend Sardar Patel, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.

Parikh is revered in Gujarat today, and by many Indians conscious of his important role alongside Gandhi and Patel.

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