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Top 10 Architeectural Monuments Of India


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Posted 25 May 2015 - 12:09 PM

Top 10 architeectural monuments of INDIA

-Theme - Historical architectural monuments

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Posted 25 May 2015 - 12:10 PM

Taj Mahal
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India‘s Taj Mahal, fashioned from marble and heartbreak, was built by Mogul emperor Shah Jahan as a tomb for his beloved consort, Empress Mumtaz Mahal, who died in childbirth. The bejeweled Taj, completed circa 1647 and located in the city of Agra, is considered the most ravishing example of Mogul architecture.
The mausoleum has survived invading Jats and colonial Brits, who pried out the lapis during India’s 1857 rebellion. They later restored the building and erected a scaffold to protect it from Axis bombing raids in WWII. The Taj now faces its deadliest enemy: environmental degradation, as the sinking water table of the Yamuna River speeds the decay of the wood base supporting the structure, threatening it with collapse.
By the numbers: The bejeweled Taj Mahal took 22 years to complete and had a crew of 20,000 workers and 1,000 elephants.
Dome view: The nearly 200-foot-tall dome is actually a dome within a dome. The bulbous outer shell is much larger than the interior one. If the exterior dome were visible from the inside, the Taj’s symmetry would be spoiled.
Grief or belief? Recent theories claim the Taj was designed not to express love but as a map to the Judgment Day interpreted by the Sufis, a mystical sect of Islam.
Family feud: Shortly after the Taj was finished, Shah Jahan was overthrown and imprisoned by his son, who later did his filial duty and buried his father next to Mumtaz.
Resting in peace: The ornate sarcophagus that visitors see is empty. Shah Jahan’s and his empress’s real graves are in the tomb’s lower level, hidden from tourists. Marks on the floor indicate the tombs’ locations below.
Night light: The Taj can be visited after dark on the night of a full moon, and two days before or after it. The mausoleum is closed on Fridays and during Ramadan.
Freeway of love: Tourists’ travel time from New Delhi to the industrial city of Agra was halved to about two hours in August 2012 with the opening of the six-lane Yamuna Expressway.
Flower power: The tip of the Taj is designed to look like a lotus.
Going green: The trimmed lawns surrounding the building reflect an English tradition, not an Indian one. Before the British raj, the Taj’s gardens boasted forests of banana, apple, and orange trees.
Dreamy description: India’s poet Rabindranath Tagore called the Taj “a teardrop on the cheeks of time.”

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Posted 25 May 2015 - 12:12 PM

 Ajanta Caves
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The Ajanta Caves (Ajiṇṭhā leni; Marathi: अजिंठा लेणी) in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra, India are about 30 rock-cut Buddhist cave monuments which date from the 2nd century BCE to about 480 or 650 CE. The caves include paintings and sculptures described by the government Archaeological Survey of India as "the finest surviving examples of Indian art, particularly painting", which are masterpieces of Buddhist religious art, with figures of the Buddha and depictions of the Jataka tales. The caves were built in two phases starting around the 2nd century BCE, with the second group of caves built around 400–650 CE according to older accounts, or all in a brief period of 460 to 480 according to the recent proposals of Walter M. Spink. The site is a protected monument in the care of the Archaeological Survey of India, and since 1983, the Ajanta Caves have been a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The caves are located in the Indian state of Maharashtra, near Jalgaon and just outside the village of Ajinṭhā 20°31′56″N 75°44′44″E), about 59 kilometres (37 miles) from Jalgaon railway station on the Delhi – Mumbai line and Howrah-Nagpur-Mumbai line of the Central Railway zone, and 104 kilometres (65 miles) from the city of Aurangabad. They are 100 kilometres (62 miles) from the Ellora Caves, which contain Hindu and Jain temples as well as Buddhist caves, the last dating from a period similar to Ajanta. The Ajanta caves are cut into the side of a cliff that is on the south side of a U-shaped gorge on the small river Waghora (or Wagura), and although they are now along and above a modern pathway running across the cliff they were originally reached by individual stairs or ladders from the side of the river 35 to 110 feet below.
The area was previously heavily forested, and after the site ceased to be used the caves were covered by jungle until accidentally rediscovered in 1819 by a British officer on a hunting party. They are Buddhist monastic buildings, apparently representing a number of distinct "monasteries" or colleges. The caves are numbered 1 to 28 according to their place along the path, beginning at the entrance. Several are unfinished and some barely begun and others are small shrines, included in the traditional numbering as e.g. "9A"; "Cave 15A" was still hidden under rubble when the numbering was done. Further round the gorge are a number of waterfalls, which when the river is high are audible from outside the caves.
The caves form the largest corpus of early Indian wall-painting; other survivals from the area of modern India are very few, though they are related to 5th-century paintings at Sigiriya in Sri Lanka. The elaborate architectural carving in many caves is also very rare, and the style of the many figure sculptures is highly local, found only at a few nearby contemporary sites, although the Ajanta tradition can be related to the later Hindu Ellora Caves and other sites.

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Posted 25 May 2015 - 12:13 PM

Jain Delwara temples
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The Jain Delwara temples of India are located about 2½ kilometres from Mount Abu, Rajasthan's only hill station. These temples built by Vastupal Tejpal[1][2] between the 11th and 13th centuries AD are world famous for their stunning use of marble. The five legendary marble temples of Dilwara are a sacred pilgrimage place of the Jains. Some consider them to be one of the most beautiful Jain pilgrimage sites in the world. The marble temples have an opulent entranceway, the simplicity in architecture reflecting Jain values like honesty and frugality. The temples are in the midst of a range of forested hills. A high wall shrouds the temple complex.
 
Although the Jains built some beautiful temples at other places in Rajasthan, some believe that none come close to these in terms of architectural perfection. The ornamental detail spreading over the minutely carved ceilings, doorways, pillars and panels is simply marvellous.
 
For the people who come to perform puja here, there are facilities to bathe and get ready,which is mandatory to perform puja to the idol. The facilities use passive solar power to heat up the water for bathing and other things. Guided tour hours for tourists are posted outside the temple. 

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Posted 25 May 2015 - 12:15 PM

Jaisalmer Fort

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Jaisalmer Fort is one of the largest forts in the world. It is situated in Jaisalmer city in the Indian state of Rajasthan. It was built in 1156 AD by the Bhati Rajput ruler Rao Jaisal, from where it derives it name. The fort stands proudly amidst the golden stretches of the great Thar Desert, on Trikuta Hill, and has been the scene of many battles. Its massive yellow sandstone walls are a tawny lion color during the day, fading to honey-gold as the sun sets, thereby camouflaging the fort in the yellow desert. For this reason, it is also known as the “Golden Fort”. This fort, popularly known as the 'Sonar quila' by the locals, is located in the very heart the city, and is one of the most notable monuments in the locality.

During medieval times, the city played a major role in trade with Persia, Arabia, Egypt and Africa. The fort contains 3 layers of walls. The outer or the lower layer is made out of solid stone blocks and it reinforces the loose rubble of Trikuta Hill. The second, or middle, wall snakes around the fort. From the innermost, or third, wall, the Rajput warriors once hurled boiling oil and water as well as massive blocks of rock at their enemies, who would become entrapped between the second and third walls. This defenses of the fort include 99 bastions, of which 92 were built between the period of 1633-47.
Ala-ud-din Khilji attacked and captured the fort in the 13th century and managed to hold it for 9 years. During the siege of the fort the Rajput women committed Jauhar. The second battle at the fort happened in 1541, when Mughal emperor Humayun attacked the fort city.
With the advent of British rule, the emergence of maritime trade and the growth of the port of Bombay led to the gradual economic decline of Jaisalmer. After independence and the Partition of India, the ancient trade route was totally closed, thus sealing the fate of the city. Nonetheless, the continued strategic importance of Jaisalmer was demonstrated during the 1965 and 1971 wars between India and Pakistan.[2] Although at one point the entire population of Jaisalmer lived within the fort, it today has a resident population of about 4,000 people who are largely from the Brahmin and Daroga communities. They are mostly descendants of the workforce of the Bhati rulers of Jaisalmer which was permitted to reside within the fort's premises.[1] With an increase in population, people gradually relocated to the foot of the Trikuta Hill and the town of Jaisalmer spread out from the fort.

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Posted 25 May 2015 - 12:17 PM

Khajuraho Group of Monuments

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The Khajuraho Group of Monuments in Khajuraho, a town in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, located in Chhatarpur District, about 620 kilometres (385 mi) southeast of New Delhi, is one of the most popular tourist destinations in India. Khajuraho has the largest group of medieval Hindu and Jain temples, famous for their erotic sculptures.

 
Between 950 and 1150, the Chandela monarchs built these temples when the Tantric tradition may have been accepted. In the days before the Mughal conquests, when boys lived in hermitages, following brahmacharya until they became men, they could learn about the world and prepare themselves to become householders through examining these sculptures and the worldly desires they depicted.
 
The name Khajuraho, ancient "Kharjuravāhaka", is derived from the Sanskrit words kharjura = date palm and vāhaka = "one who carries". Locals living in the Khajuraho village always knew about and kept up the temples as best as they could. They were pointed out to the English in the late 19th century when the jungles had taken a toll on the monuments. In the 19th century, British engineer T.S. Burt arrived in the area, followed by General Alexander Cunningham. Cunningham put Khajuraho on the world map when he explored the site on behalf of the Archaeological Survey of India and described what he found in glowing terms. The Khajuraho Group of Monuments has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and is considered to be one of the "seven wonders" of India.

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Posted 25 May 2015 - 12:18 PM

Konark Sun Temple

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Konark Sun Temple (Oriya: କୋଣାର୍କ ସୂର୍ଯ୍ୟ ମନ୍ଦିର [koɳarkə]; also Konârak) is a 13th century Sun Temple (also known as the Black Pagoda),at Konark, in Odisha, India. It was supposedly built by king Narasimhadeva I of Eastern Ganga Dynasty around 1250.It has been built in the shape of a gigantic chariot with elaborately carved stone wheels, pillars and walls. A major part of the structure is now in ruins. The temple is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is also featured on NDTV's list of Seven Wonders of India and Times of India's list of Seven Wonders of India.

The temple was originally built at the mouth of the river Chandrabhaga, but the waterline has receded since then. The temple has been built in the form of a giant ornamented chariot of the Sun god, Surya. It has twelve pairs of elaborately carved stone wheels some of which are 3 meters wide and is pulled by seven pairs of horses.[5] The temple follows the traditional style of Kalinga architecture. It is carefully oriented towards the east so that the first rays of sunrise strikes the principal entrance. The temple is built from Khondalite rocks.
“ Here the language of stone surpasses the language of man. ”
—Rabindranath Tagore
 
The original temple had a main sanctum sanctorum (vimana), which was supposedly 229 feet (70 m) tall. But it has fallen off. The audience hall (Jagamohana), which is about 128 feet (30 m) tall, still stands and is the principal structure in the surviving ruins. Among the structures, which have survived to the current day, are the dance hall (Nata mandira) and dining hall (Bhoga mandapa).
The Konark temple is also known for its erotic sculptures of maithunas.
Two smaller ruined temples have been discovered nearby. One of them is called the Mayadevi Temple and is located southwest from the entrance of the main temple. It is presumed to have been dedicated to Mayadevi, one of the Sun god's wives. It has been dated to the late 11th century, earlier than the main temple. The other one belongs to some unknown Vaishnava deity. Sculptures of Balarama, Varaha and Trivikrama have been found at the site, indicating it to be a Vaishnavite temple. Both temples have their primary idols missing.
A collection of fallen sculptures can be viewed at the Konark Archaeological Museum which is maintained by the Archaeological Survey of India.

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Posted 25 May 2015 - 12:19 PM

The Lotus Temple

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The Lotus Temple, located in New Delhi, India, is a Bahá'í House of Worship completed in 1986. Notable for its flowerlike shape, it serves as the Mother Temple of the Indian subcontinent and has become a prominent attraction in the city. The Lotus Temple has won numerous architectural awards and been featured in hundreds of newspaper and magazine articles.


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Posted 25 May 2015 - 12:20 PM

Fatehpur Sikri 

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Fatehpur Sikri (Hindi: फ़तेहपुर सीकरी, Urdu: فتحپور سیکری) is a city and a municipal board in Agra district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The city was founded in 1569 by the Mughal emperor Akbar, and served as the capital of the Mughal Empire from 1571 to 1585. After his military victories over Chittor and Ranthambore, Akbar decided to shift his capital from Agra to a new location 23 miles (37 km) W.S.W on the Sikri ridge, to honor the Sufi saint Salim Chishti. Here he commenced the construction of a planned walled city which took the next fifteen years in planning and construction of a series of royal palaces, harem, courts, a mosque, private quarters and other utility buildings. He named the city, Fatehabad, with Fateh, a word of Arabic origin in Persian, meaning "victorious." it was later called Fatehpur Sikri. It is at Fatehpur Sikri that the legends of Akbar and his famed courtiers, the nine jewels or Navaratnas, were born.[citation needed] Fatehpur Sikri is one of the best preserved collections of Mughal architecture in India.

According to contemporary historians, Akbar took a great interest in the building of Fatehpur Sikri and probably also dictated its architectural style. Seeking to revive the splendours of Persian court ceremonial made famous by his ancestor Timur, Akbar planned the complex on Persian principles. But the influences of his adopted land came through in the typically Indian embellishments. The easy availability of sandstone in the neighbouring areas of Fatehpur Sikri, also meant that all the buildings here were made of the red stone. The imperial Palace complex consists of a number of independent pavilions arranged in formal geometry on a piece of level ground, a pattern derived from Arab and central Asian tent encampments. In its entirety, the monuments at Fatehpur Sikri thus reflect the genius of Akbar in assimilating diverse regional architectural influences within a holistic style that was uniquely his own.
The Imperial complex was abandoned in 1585, shortly after its completion, due to paucity of water and its proximity with the Rajputana areas in the North-West, which were increasingly in turmoil. Thus the capital was shifted to Lahore so that Akbar could have a base in the less stable part of the empire, before moving back Agra in 1598, where he had begun his reign as he shifted his focus to Deccan.[6] In fact, he never returned to the city except for a brief period in 1601. In later Mughal history it was occupied for a short while by Mughal emperor, Muhammad Shah (r. 1719 -1748), and his regent, Sayyid Hussain Ali Khan Barha, one of the Syed Brothers, was murdered here in 1720. Today much of the imperial complex which spread over nearly two mile long and one mile wide area is largely intact and resembles a ghost town. It is still surrounded by a five mile long wall built during its original construction, on three sides. However apart from the imperial buildings complex few other buildings stand in the area, which is mostly barren, except of ruins of the bazaars of the old city near the Naubat Khana, the 'drum-house' entrance at Agra Road. The modern town lies at the western end of the complex, which was a municipality from 1865 to 1904, and later made a "notified area", and in 1901 had a population of 7,147. For a long time it was still known for its masons and stone carvers, though in Akbar time it was known and 'fabrics of hair' and 'silk-spinning'. The village of Sikri still exists nearby.

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Posted 25 May 2015 - 12:22 PM

Qutb Minar

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Qutb Minar also spelled Qutub or Qutab, is the 2nd tallest minar (73 metres) in India after Minar-E-Fateh at chhapar chiri at Anandpur Sahib which stands 100 meters tall, built in memory of great victory of Sikh forces led by Baba Banda Singh Bahadur over the mughal forces. Qutub Minar originally an ancient Islamic Monument, inscribed with Arabic inscriptions, and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Located in Delhi, the Qutb Minar is made of red sandstone and marble. The stairs of the tower has 379 steps, is 72.5 metres (237.8 ft) high, and has a base diameter of 14.3 metres, which narrows to 2.7 metres at the top. Construction was started in 1192 by Qutb-ud-din Aibak and was carried on by his successor, Iltutmish. In 1368, Firoz Shah Tughlak constructed the fifth and the last storey.  It is surrounded by several other ancient and medieval structures and ruins, collectively known as the Qutb complex


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Posted 25 May 2015 - 12:23 PM

Sanchi Stupa

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Sanchi Stupa is located at Sanchi Town in Raisen District of the state of Madhya Pradesh, India, it is located 46 km north east of Bhopal.

The 'Great Stupa' at Sanchi is the oldest stone structure in India and was originally commissioned by the emperor Ashoka the Great in the 3rd century BC. Its nucleus was a simple hemispherical brick structure built over the relics of the Buddha. It was crowned by the chatra, a parasol-like structure symbolising high rank, which was intended to honour and shelter the relics. The construction work of this stupa was overseen by Ashoka's wife, Devi herself, who was the daughter of a merchant of Vidisha. Sanchi was also her birthplace as well as the venue of her and Ashoka's wedding. In the 1st century BC, four profusely carved toranas or ornamental gateways and a balustrade encircling the whole structure was added.
The 'Great Stupa' at Sanchi is the oldest structure and was originally commissioned by the emperor Ashoka the Great in the 3rd century BC. Its nucleus was a hemispherical brick structure built over the relics of the Buddha. It was crowned by the chatra, a parasol-like structure symbolising high rank. A pillar of finely polished sandstone was also erected. The old stupa was later covered when it was expanded.

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Posted 25 May 2015 - 12:26 PM

Hari  :super:

 

Thanks for sharing :)




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Posted 25 May 2015 - 12:30 PM

Vijayetta :adiyan: Proud to be an Indian :salute:


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Posted 25 May 2015 - 12:40 PM

Hari....kidu kidu.... :yes:

 

:thanks: dear


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Posted 25 May 2015 - 12:41 PM

Vanampadai :adiyan: :india:


Edited by PachalaM Hari, 25 May 2015 - 12:41 PM.



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